Modulation of 3D Printed Calcium-Deficient Apatite Constructs with Varying Mn Concentrations for Osteochondral Regeneration via Endochondral Differentiation

Kamaraj, Meenakshi and Roopavath, Uday Kiran and Giri, Pravin Shankar and Ponnusamy, Nandha Kumar and Rath, Subha Narayan (2022) Modulation of 3D Printed Calcium-Deficient Apatite Constructs with Varying Mn Concentrations for Osteochondral Regeneration via Endochondral Differentiation. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 14 (20). pp. 23245-23259. ISSN 1944-8244

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Osteochondral regeneration remains a vital problem in clinical situations affecting both bone and cartilage tissues due to the low regeneration ability of cartilage tissue. Additionally, the simultaneous regeneration of bone and cartilage is difficult to attain due to their dissimilar nature. Thus, fabricating a single scaffold for both bone and cartilage regeneration remains challenging. Biomaterials are frequently employed to promote tissue restoration, but they still cannot replicate the structure of native tissue. This study aims to create a single biomaterial that could be used to regenerate both bone and cartilage. This study focuses on synthesizing calcium-deficient apatite (CDA) with the gradual addition of manganese. The phase stability and the effect of heat treatment on manganese-doped CDA were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement. The obtained powders were tested for their 3-dimensional (3D) printing ability by fabricating cuboidal 3D structures. The 3D printed scaffolds were examined for external topography using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and were subjected to compression testing. In vitro biocompatibility and differentiation studies were performed to access their biocompatibility and differentiation capabilities. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis was done to determine the gene expression of bone-and cartilage-specific markers. Mn helps in stabilizing the β-TCP phase beyond its sintering temperature without being degraded to α-TCP. Mn addition in CDA improves the compressive strength of the fabricated scaffolds while keeping them biocompatible. The concentrations of Mn in the CDA ceramic were found to influence the differentiation behavior of MSCs in the fabricated scaffolds. Mn-doped CDA is a promising candidate to be used as a substitute material for bone, cartilage, and osteochondral defects to facilitate repair and regeneration via endochondral differentiation. 3D printing can assist in the fabrication of a multifunctional single-unit scaffold with varied Mn concentrations, which might be able to generate the two tissues in situ in an osteochondral defect. © 2022 American Chemical Society.

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IITH Creators:
IITH CreatorsORCiD
Rath, Subha Narayan
Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: ceramic 3D printing; chondrogenesis; manganese; osteogenesis; phase stability
Subjects: Physics > Mechanical and aerospace
Biomedical Engineering
Divisions: Department of Biomedical Engineering
Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Depositing User: . LibTrainee 2021
Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2022 09:57
Last Modified: 16 Jul 2022 09:57
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