Body Image Scale: Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties in Three Indian Head and Neck Cancer Language Groups

Shunmugasundaram, Chindhu and Chittem, Mahati and Rutherford, Claudia and et al, . (2022) Body Image Scale: Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties in Three Indian Head and Neck Cancer Language Groups. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. pp. 1-9. ISSN 1664-1078

[img] Text (Open access)
Frontiers_in_Psychology.pdf - Published Version

Download (276kB)


Background: Body image is a subjective concept encompassing a person’s views and emotions about their body. Head and neck cancer (HNC) diagnosis and treatment affects several psychosocial concepts including body image. Large numbers of HNC patients are diagnosed each year in India but there are no suitable measures in regional languages to assess their body image. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Body Image Scale (BIS), a measure suitable for clinical and research use in HNC populations, translated into Tamil, Telugu and Hindi and compared body image distress between language groups. Methods: Translated versions of BIS were completed by HNC patients recruited from three cancer centers across India one time only. Psychometric evaluation was conducted including factor analysis using principal component analysis and internal consistency reliability using Cronbach’s alpha. Patients completed the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ) C-30 and EORTC QLQ HN-35 measures to enable exploration of convergent and discriminant validity. ANOVA was used to calculate difference in mean values for body image. Results: Our sample included 621 HNC patients (Tamil = 205, Telugu = 216, Hindi = 200). Factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranged between 0.891 and 0.969 indicating good reliability. Hypothesized correlations between similar and different constructs were as expected, supporting construct validity. On the BIS, we found a statistically significant difference (F = 11.0954, P < 0.05) between means of Tamil, Telugu, and Hindi groups, with higher body image scores in Telugu (M = 12.86; SD = 7.65) and Hindi groups (M = 12.52; SD = 7.36) indicating more symptoms/body image distress, when compared to Tamil population (M = 9.28; SD = 10.04). Conclusion: The reliability and validity of the three translated Indian versions of the BIS were maintained, providing a method for assessing body image of HNC population worldwide speaking Tamil, Telugu, and Hindi across the illness trajectory. Copyright © 2022 Shunmugasundaram, Dhillon, Butow, Sundaresan, Chittem, Akula, Veeraiah, Huilgol and Rutherford.

[error in script]
IITH Creators:
IITH CreatorsORCiD
Chittem, Mahati
Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This study was funded by the India Development Fund 2018, Office of Global Engagement, The University of Sydney.
Uncontrolled Keywords: body image; cross-cultural adaptation; head and neck cancer; Indian languages; validation
Subjects: Others > Psychology
Arts > Liberal arts
Divisions: Department of Liberal Arts
Depositing User: . LibTrainee 2021
Date Deposited: 27 Jun 2022 11:51
Last Modified: 01 Jul 2022 09:41
Publisher URL:
OA policy:
Related URLs:

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item
Statistics for RAIITH ePrint 9412 Statistics for this ePrint Item