Metal-Alloy Cu Surface Passivation Leads to High Quality Fine-Pitch Bump-Less Cu-Cu Bonding for 3D IC and Heterogeneous Integration Applications

Panigrahi, Asisa Kumar and C, Hemanth Kumar and Bonam, S and K, Brince Paul and Ghosh, Tamal and Paul, Nirupam and Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna and Singh, Shiv Govind (2018) Metal-Alloy Cu Surface Passivation Leads to High Quality Fine-Pitch Bump-Less Cu-Cu Bonding for 3D IC and Heterogeneous Integration Applications. In: 68th IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 28 May-1 June 2018, United States.

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In this paper, we report a low temperature, fine-pitch, bump-less, damascene compatible Cu-Cu thermocompression bonding, using an optimized ultra-thin passivation layer, Constantan, which is an alloy (Copper-Nickel) of 55% Cu and 45% Ni. Surface oxidation and its roughness are the major bottlenecks in achieving high quality, low temperature, and fine-pitch Cu-Cu bonding. In this endeavor, we have used Cu rich alloy (Constantan) for passivation of Cu surface prior to bonding. We have systematically optimized the constantan passivation layer thickness for high quality low temperature, low pressure, bump-less Cu-Cu bonding. Also, we have studied systematically the efficacy of Cu surface passivation with optimized ultra-thin constantan alloy passivation layer. After rigorous trial and optimization, we successfully identified 2 nm passivation layer thickness, at which very high quality Cu-Cu bonding could be accomplished at sub 200 °C with a nominal contact pressure of 0.4 MPa. Post-bonding, electrical and mechanical characterization were validated using four-probe IV measurement and bond strength measurement respectively. Furthermore, Cu-Cu bonding interface was analyzed using IR wafer bonder inspection tool. Very high bond strength of 163 MPa and defect free interface observed by WBI-IR clearly suggests, Cu-Cu finepitch bonding with optimized ultra-thin alloy of 2 nm thick constantan, is of very high quality and reliable. Moreover, this novel bonding approach with alloy based interconnect passivation technique is the prime contestant for future heterogeneous integration.

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IITH Creators:
IITH CreatorsORCiD
Singh, Shiv Govind
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Subjects: Electrical Engineering
Divisions: Department of Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Team Library
Date Deposited: 04 Sep 2018 11:33
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2018 11:33
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