Fast Algorithm Development for SVD: Applications in Pattern Matching and Fault Diagnosis

N, Rajasekhar and Detroja, Ketan P (2018) Fast Algorithm Development for SVD: Applications in Pattern Matching and Fault Diagnosis. Masters thesis, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad.

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The project aims for fast detection and diagnosis of faults occurring in process plants by designing a low-cost FPGA module for the computation. Fast detection and diagnosis when the process is still operating in a controllable region helps avoiding the further advancement of the fault and reduce the productivity loss. Model-based methods are not popular in the domain of process control as obtaining an accurate model is expensive and requires an expertise. Data-driven methods like Principal Component Analysis(PCA) is a quite popular diagnostic method for process plants as they do not require any model. PCA is widely used tool for dimensionality reduction and thus reducing the computational e�ort. The trends are captured in prinicpal components as it is di�cult to have a same amount of disturbance as simulated in historical database. The historical database has multiple instances of various kinds of faults and disturbances along with normal operation. A moving window approach has been employed to detect similar instances in the historical database based on Standard PCA similarity factor. The measurements of variables of interest over a certain period of time forms the snapshot dataset, S. At each instant, a window of same size as that of snapshot dataset is picked from the historical database forms the historical window, H. The two datasets are then compared using similarity factors like Standard PCA similarity factor which signi�es the angular di�erence between the principal components of two datasets. Since many of the operating conditions are quite similar to each other and signi�cant number of mis-classi�cations have been observed, a candidate pool which orders the historical data windows on the values of similarity factor is formed. Based on the most detected operation among the top-most windows, the operating personnel takes necessary action. Tennessee Eastman Challenge process has been chosen as an initial case study for evaluating the performance. The measurements are sampled for every one minute and the fault having the smallest maximum duration is 8 hours. Hence the snapshot window size, m has been chosen to be consisting of 500 samples i.e 8.33 hours of most recent data of all the 52 variables. Ideally, the moving window should replace the oldest sample with a new one. Then it would take approximately the same number of comparisons as that of size of historical database. The size of the historical database is 4.32 million measurements(past 8years data) for each of the 52 variables. With software simulation on Matlab, this takes around 80-100 minutes to sweep through the whole 4.32 million historical database. Since most of the computation is spent in �nding principal components of the two datasets using SVD, a hardware design has to be incorporated to accelerate the pattern matching approach. The thesis is organized as follows: Chapter 1 describes the moving window approach, various similarity factors and metrics used for pattern matching. The previous work proposed by Ashish Singhal is based on skipping few samples for reducing the computational e�ort and also employs windows as large as 5761 which is four days of snapshot. Instead, a new method which skips the samples when the similarity factor is quite low has been proposed. A simpli�ed form of the Standard PCA similarity has been proposed without any trade-o� in accuracy. Pre-computation of historical database can also be done as the data is available aprior, but this requires a large memory requirement as most of the time is spent in read/write operations. The large memory requirement is due to the fact that every sample will give rise to 52�35 matrix assuming the top-35 PC's are sufficient enough to capture the variance of the dataset. Chapter 2 describes various popular algorithms for SVD. Algorithms apart from Jacobi methods like Golub-Kahan, Divide and conquer SVD algorithms are brie y discussed. While bi-diagonal methods are very accurate they suffer from large latency and computationally intensive. On the other hand, Jacobi methods are computationally inexpensive and parallelizable, thus reducing the latency. We also evaluted the performance of the proposed hybrid Golub-Kahan Jacobi algorithm to our application. Chapter 3 describes the basic building block CORDIC which is used for performing rotations required for Jacobi methods or for n-D householder re ections of Golub-Kahan SVD. CORIDC is widely employed in hardware design for computing trigonometric, exponential or logarithmic functions as it makes use of simple shift and add/subtract operations. Two modes of CORDIC namely Rotation mode and Vectoring mode are discussed which are used in the derivation of Two-sided Jacobi SVD. Chapter 4 describes the Jacobi methods of SVD which are quite popular in hardware implementation as they are quite amenable to parallel computation. Two variants of Jacobi methods namely One-sided and Two-sided Jacobi methods are brie y discussed. Two-sided Jacobi making making use of CORDIC has has been derived. The systolic array implementation which is quite popular in hardware implementation for the past three decades has been discussed. Chapter 5 deals with the Hardware implementation of Pattern matching and reports the literature survey of various architectures developed for computing SVD. Xilinx ZC7020 has been chosen as target device for FPGA implementation as it is inexpensive device with many built-in peripherals. The latency reports with both Vivado HLS and Vivado SDSoC are also reported for the application of interest. Evaluation of other case studies and other datadriven methods similar to PCA like Correspondence Analysis(CA) and Independent Component Analysis(ICA), development of efficient hybrid method for computing SVD in hardware and highly discriminating similarity factor, extending CORDIC to n-dimensions for householder re ections have been considered for future research.

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IITH Creators:
IITH CreatorsORCiD
Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Algorithms for SVD, PCA, Data Driven Methods for Process Plant
Subjects: Electrical Engineering
Divisions: Department of Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Team Library
Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2018 05:45
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2019 09:36
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