Roy, Debaditya and C, Krishna Mohan (2018) REPRESENTATION LEARNING FOR ACTION RECOGNITION. PhD thesis, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad.

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The objective of this research work is to develop discriminative representations for human actions. The motivation stems from the fact that there are many issues encountered while capturing actions in videos like intra-action variations (due to actors, viewpoints, and duration), inter-action similarity, background motion, and occlusion of actors. Hence, obtaining a representation which can address all the variations in the same action while maintaining discrimination with other actions is a challenging task. In literature, actions have been represented either using either low-level or high-level features. Low-level features describe the motion and appearance in small spatio-temporal volumes extracted from a video. Due to the limited space-time volume used for extracting low-level features, they are not able to account for viewpoint and actor variations or variable length actions. On the other hand, high-level features handle variations in actors, viewpoints, and duration but the resulting representation is often high-dimensional which introduces the curse of dimensionality. In this thesis, we propose new representations for describing actions by combining the advantages of both low-level and high-level features. Specifically, we investigate various linear and non-linear decomposition techniques to extract meaningful attributes in both high-level and low-level features. In the first approach, the sparsity of high-level feature descriptors is leveraged to build action-specific dictionaries. Each dictionary retains only the discriminative information for a particular action and hence reduces inter-action similarity. Then, a sparsity-based classification method is proposed to classify the low-rank representation of clips obtained using these dictionaries. We show that this representation based on dictionary learning improves the classification performance across actions. Also, a few of the actions consist of rapid body deformations that hinder the extraction of local features from body movements. Hence, we propose to use a dictionary which is trained on convolutional neural network (CNN) features of the human body in various poses to reliably identify actors from the background. Particularly, we demonstrate the efficacy of sparse representation in the identification of the human body under rapid and substantial deformation. In the first two approaches, sparsity-based representation is developed to improve discriminability using class-specific dictionaries that utilize action labels. However, developing an unsupervised representation of actions is more beneficial as it can be used to both recognize similar actions and localize actions. We propose to exploit inter-action similarity to train a universal attribute model (UAM) in order to learn action attributes (common and distinct) implicitly across all the actions. Using maximum aposteriori (MAP) adaptation, a high-dimensional super action-vector (SAV) for each clip is extracted. As this SAV contains redundant attributes of all other actions, we use factor analysis to extract a novel lowvi dimensional action-vector representation for each clip. Action-vectors are shown to suppress background motion and highlight actions of interest in both trimmed and untrimmed clips that contributes to action recognition without the help of any classifiers. It is observed during our experiments that action-vector cannot effectively discriminate between actions which are visually similar to each other. Hence, we subject action-vectors to supervised linear embedding using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and probabilistic LDA (PLDA) to enforce discrimination. Particularly, we show that leveraging complimentary information across action-vectors using different local features followed by discriminative embedding provides the best classification performance. Further, we explore non-linear embedding of action-vectors using Siamese networks especially for fine-grained action recognition. A visualization of the hidden layer output in Siamese networks shows its ability to effectively separate visually similar actions. This leads to better classification performance than linear embedding on fine-grained action recognition. All of the above approaches are presented on large unconstrained datasets with hundreds of examples per action. However, actions in surveillance videos like snatch thefts are difficult to model because of the diverse variety of scenarios in which they occur and very few labeled examples. Hence, we propose to utilize the universal attribute model (UAM) trained on large action datasets to represent such actions. Specifically, we show that there are similarities between certain actions in the large datasets with snatch thefts which help in extracting a representation for snatch thefts using the attributes from the UAM. This representation is shown to be effective in distinguishing snatch thefts from regular actions with high accuracy.In summary, this thesis proposes both supervised and unsupervised approaches for representing actions which provide better discrimination than existing representations. The first approach presents a dictionary learning based sparse representation for effective discrimination of actions. Also, we propose a sparse representation for the human body based on dictionaries in order to recognize actions with rapid body deformations. In the next approach, a low-dimensional representation called action-vector for unsupervised action recognition is presented. Further, linear and non-linear embedding of action-vectors is proposed for addressing inter-action similarity and fine-grained action recognition, respectively. Finally, we propose a representation for locating snatch thefts among thousands of regular interactions in surveillance videos.

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IITH Creators:
IITH CreatorsORCiD
Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Action Recognition, Dictionary Learning, Representation Learning
Subjects: Computer science
Divisions: Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Depositing User: Team Library
Date Deposited: 15 Jun 2018 06:22
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2018 06:24
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