Finite-fault source inversion using adjoint methods in 3D heterogeneous media

Somala, S N and Ampuero, Jean-Paul and Lapusta, Nadia (2018) Finite-fault source inversion using adjoint methods in 3D heterogeneous media. Geophysical Journal International. ISSN 0956-540X

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Accounting for lateral heterogeneities in the 3D velocity structure of the crust is known to improve earthquake source inversion, compared to results based on 1D velocity models which are routinely assumed to derive finite-fault slip models. The conventional approach to include known 3D heterogeneity in source inversion involves pre-computing 3D Green’s functions, which requires a number of 3D wave propagation simulations proportional to the number of stations or to the number of fault cells. The computational cost of such an approach is prohibitive for the dense datasets that could be provided by future earthquake observation systems. Here, we propose an adjoint-based optimization technique to invert for the spatio-temporal evolution of slip velocity. The approach does not require pre-computed Green’s functions. The adjoint method provides the gradient of the cost function, which is used to improve the model iteratively employing an iterative gradient-based minimization method. The adjoint approach is shown to be computationally more efficient than the conventional approach based on pre-computed Green’s functions in a broad range of situations. We consider data up to 1 Hz from a Haskell source scenario (a steady pulse-like rupture) on a vertical strike-slip fault embedded in an elastic 3D heterogeneous velocity model. The velocity model comprises a uniform background and a 3D stochastic perturbation with the von Karman correlation function. Source inversions based on the 3D velocity model are performed for two different station configurations, a dense and a sparse network with 1 km and 20 km station spacing, respectively. These reference inversions show that our inversion scheme adequately retrieves the rise time when the velocity model is exactly known, and illustrates how dense coverage improves the inference of peak slip velocities. We investigate the effects of uncertainties in the velocity model by performing source inversions based on an incorrect, homogeneous velocity model. We find that, for velocity uncertainties that have standard deviation and correlation length typical of available 3D crustal models, the inverted sources can be severely contaminated by spurious features even if the station density is high. When data from thousand or more receivers is used in source inversions in 3D heterogeneous media, the computational cost of the method proposed in this work is at least two orders of magnitude lower than source inversion based on pre-computed Green’s functions.

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Item Type: Article
Subjects: Civil Engineering
Divisions: Department of Civil Engineering
Depositing User: Team Library
Date Deposited: 18 Apr 2018 05:34
Last Modified: 18 Apr 2018 05:34
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