Solvent-free fabrication of paper based all-carbon disposable multifunctional sensors and passive electronic circuits

Kanaparthi, S and Badhulika, Sushmee (2016) Solvent-free fabrication of paper based all-carbon disposable multifunctional sensors and passive electronic circuits. RSC Advances, 6 (98). pp. 95574-95583. ISSN 2046-2069

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In light of recent interest in the green fabrication of electronics, we report eco-friendly engineered temperature sensors, pH sensors, humidity sensors and passive resistor-capacitor (RC) filters by solventfree processing of graphite on cellulose paper. This was achieved via direct writing of graphite pencil on cellulose paper which involves the deposition of few layers to multi layers of conductive graphene flakes intercalated by clay and wax. The temperature sensor exhibits a negative temperature coefficient of resistance of -4232 ppm K-1, which is comparable to that of conventional temperature sensors (platinum, nickel, and copper) that are fabricated by capital intensive and complex procedures. The dynamic response of the temperature sensor shows its repeatability with excellent response time of 13.5 s. The all-carbon pH sensor could efficiently distinguish acidic, alkaline and neutral solutions with significant sensitivity from 1.77 k Omega pH(-1) to 2.21 k Omega pH(-1). The higher sensitivity of the pH sensor is attributed to the oxygen functional groups present in pencil graphite which undergoes protonation and deprotonation in presence of H+ and OH- ions to alter the conductivity of graphite trace. The interdigitated capacitive humidity sensor shows a linear response to humidity with fast response (1.5-2 s) and recovery times (6-7 s). These fast response and recovery times are due to fast adsorption and evaporation kinetics of water molecules on polar OH groups of cellulose fibers in paper, which depends on porosity of the paper. The versatility of the pencil-on-paper approach was further explored by drawing resistor and interdigitated capacitor in series to fabricate in-plane all-carbon RC filter which demonstrate anticipated functionality with a cut-off frequency of 6 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been reported on direct-write graphite on paper based in-plane all carbon passive electronic circuits, pH sensor and humidity sensor. This cleanroom-free approach further expands the scope of graphite on paper as a functional material in developing sensors and circuits for greener consumer electronics thereby causing no environmental contamination either in their production or disposal.

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IITH Creators:
IITH CreatorsORCiD
Badhulika, SushmeeUNSPECIFIED
Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Humidity Sensor; Graphite; Graphene; Pencil; Temperature; Transistors; Surfaces; Field
Subjects: ?? MD ??
?? sub5.8 ??
Divisions: Department of Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Team Library
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2016 10:38
Last Modified: 30 Aug 2017 09:19
Publisher URL:
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