Forensic investigations to evaluate sulfate-induced heave attack on a tunnel shotcrete liner

Puppala, A J and Saride, Sireesh and Dermatas, D and Al-Shamrani, M and Chikyala, V (2010) Forensic investigations to evaluate sulfate-induced heave attack on a tunnel shotcrete liner. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 22 (9). pp. 914-922. ISSN 0899-1561

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This paper presents the results of a comprehensive research study to determine the potential causes for an inordinate distress developed on a shotcrete liner material of a tunnel located near Dallas, TX. This tunnel was originally founded on a limestone material. Distress locations were identified where possible delamination of shotcrete layer and moisture leaks were either suspected or noticed. As a part of the research, rock cores and white powderlike substance behind the liner were collected around the distressed locations, and these cores and powder material were subjected to chemical, mineralogical, and engineering tests to understand the potential causes of this distress. Mineralogical tests, in particular, X-ray powder diffraction analysis on a powder material and gel-like substances collected on the liner, showed the presence of anhydrite, gypsum, and ettringite traces. High amounts of sulfate measurements in chemical and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies also showed that both gypsum and ettringite formations were possible in and around the limestone material. Upon hydration, mineral expansion of ettringite and anhydrite led to heaving and subsequent cracking of the adjacent shotcrete layer. Engineering characterization tests including unconfined compression strength (UCS), indirect tensile strength (ITS), and triaxial tests on rock cores embedded with a powder type sulfate material revealed that low strength cores were obtained near high distress zones and high strength cores were collected at low distress zones. The UCS values ranged from 6.2 (high distress) to 13.8 MPa (low distress) whereas the ITS values of the cores varied from 0.5 to 1.1 MPa for the same distress locations. This indicates the potential loss of strength of these rock materials from the presence of gypsum material in them. Possible methods to mitigate this heaving problem behind the liner are also discussed.

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IITH Creators:
IITH CreatorsORCiD
Saride, SireeshUNSPECIFIED
Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Ettringite; Gypsum; Limestone; Rock testing; Shotcrete; Sulfate heaving; Tunnels; Comprehensive research; Energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy; Engineering tests; Ettringite formations; Ettringites; Forensic investigation; High strength; Indirect tensile strength; Potential loss; Powder material; Rock core; Rock materials; Rock testing; Shotcrete liners; Shotcretes; Sulfate heaving; Sulfate measurement; Triaxial test; Unconfined compression strength
Subjects: Civil Engineering > Structural engineering and underground construction
Divisions: Department of Civil Engineering
Depositing User: Users 3 not found.
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2014 05:39
Last Modified: 01 Sep 2017 10:49
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