Electrospun fiber-based strategies for controlling early innate immune cell responses: Towards immunomodulatory mesh designs that facilitate robust tissue repair

Venugopal, Dhivya and Vishwakarma, Sushma and Kaur, Inderjeet and Samavedi, Satyavrata (2022) Electrospun fiber-based strategies for controlling early innate immune cell responses: Towards immunomodulatory mesh designs that facilitate robust tissue repair. Acta Materialia Inc.

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Electrospun fibrous meshes are widely used for tissue repair due to their ability to guide a host of cell responses including phenotypic differentiation and tissue maturation. A critical factor determining the eventual biological outcomes of mesh-based regeneration strategies is the early innate immune response following implantation. The natural healing process involves a sequence of tightly regulated, temporally varying and delicately balanced pro-/anti-inflammatory events which together promote mesh integration with host tissue. Matrix designs that do not account for the immune milieu can result in dysregulation, chronic inflammation and fibrous capsule formation, thus obliterating potential therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we provide systematic insights into the effects of specific fiber/mesh properties and mechanical stimulation on the responses of early innate immune modulators viz., neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. We identify matrix characteristics that promote anti-inflammatory immune phenotypes, and we correlate such responses with pro-regenerative in vivo outcomes. We also discuss recent advances in 3D fabrication technologies, bioactive functionalization approaches and biomimetic/bioinspired immunomodulatory mesh design strategies for tissue repair and wound healing. The mechanobiological insights and immunoregulatory strategies discussed herein can help improve the translational outcomes of fiber-based regeneration. Statement of significance: The crucial role played by immune cells in promoting biomaterial-based tissue regeneration is being increasingly recognized. In this review focusing on the interactions of innate immune cells with electrospun fibrous meshes, we systematically elucidate the effects of the fiber microenvironment and mechanical stimulation on biological responses, and build upon these insights to inform the rational design of immunomodulatory meshes for effective tissue repair. We discuss state-of-the-art fabrication methods and mechanobiological advances that permit the orchestration of temporally controlled phenotypic switches in immune cells during different phases of healing. The design strategies discussed herein can also be leveraged to target several complex autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. © 2022

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IITH Creators:
IITH CreatorsORCiD
Samavedi, SatyavrataUNSPECIFIED
Item Type: Other
Uncontrolled Keywords: Electrospun fibers; Immunomodulation; Innate immune responses; Macrophages; Matrix properties; Neutrophils; Phenotypic polarization; Tissue regeneration; Wound healing
Subjects: Chemical Engineering
Divisions: Department of Chemistry
Depositing User: . LibTrainee 2021
Date Deposited: 12 Oct 2022 11:04
Last Modified: 12 Oct 2022 11:04
URI: http://raiith.iith.ac.in/id/eprint/10906
Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2022.06.004
OA policy: https://v2.sherpa.ac.uk/id/publication/172
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