Syntaxin interacts with arachidonic acid to prevent diabetes mellitus

Das, Undurti N. (2022) Syntaxin interacts with arachidonic acid to prevent diabetes mellitus. Lipids in Health and Disease, 21 (1). ISSN 1476-511X

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Abstract

Syntaxin regulates pancreatic beta cell mass and participates in insulin secretion by regulating insulin exocytosis. In addition, syntaxin 4 reduces IFN gamma and TNF-alpha signaling via NF-kappa B in islet beta-cells that facilitates plasma glucose sensing and appropriate insulin secretion. Arachidonic acid (AA) has potent anti-inflammatory actions and prevents the cytotoxic actions of alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ) against pancreatic beta cells and thus, prevents the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (induced by alloxan and STZ) and by virtue of its anti-inflammatory actions protects against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by STZ in experimental animals that are models of type 1 and type 2 DM in humans. AA has been shown to interact with syntaxin and thus, potentiate exocytosis. AA enhances cell membrane fluidity, increases the expression of GLUT and insulin receptors, and brings about its anti-inflammatory actions at least in part by enhancing the formation of its metabolite lipoxin A4 (LXA4). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the pro-inflammatory metabolite of AA, activates ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) neurons of the hypothalamus and inhibits insulin secretion leading to reduced glucose tolerance and decreases insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscle and liver. This adverse action of PGE2 on insulin release and action can be attributed to its (PGE2) pro-inflammatory action and inhibitory action on vagal tone (vagus nerve and its principal neurotransmitter acetylcholine has potent anti-inflammatory actions). High fat diet fed animals have hypothalamic inflammation due to chronic elevation of PGE2. Patients with type 2 DM show low plasma concentrations of AA and LXA4 and elevated levels of PGE2. Administration of AA enhances LXA4 formation without altering or reducing PGE2 levels and thus, tilts the balance more towards anti-inflammatory events. These results suggest that administration of AA is useful in the prevention and management of DM by enhancing the action of syntaxin, increasing cell membrane fluidity, and reducing VMH inflammation. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has actions like AA: it increases cell membrane fluidity; has anti-inflammatory actions by enhancing the formation of its anti-inflammatory metabolites resolvins, protectins and maresins; interacts with syntaxin and enhance exocytosis in general and of insulin. But the DHA content of cell membrane is lower compared to AA and its content in brain is significant. Hence, it is likely DHA is important in neurotransmitters secretion and regulating hypothalamic inflammation. It is likely that a combination of AA and DHA can prevent DM.

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IITH Creators:
IITH CreatorsORCiD
Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Syntaxin,Arachidonic acid,Lipoxin A4,Pancreatic beta cells
Subjects: Others > Biotechnology
Divisions: Department of Biotechnology
Depositing User: . LibTrainee 2021
Date Deposited: 30 Aug 2022 07:22
Last Modified: 30 Aug 2022 07:22
URI: http://raiith.iith.ac.in/id/eprint/10336
Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-022-01681-3
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