Gupta, Sushmita and Jain, Pallavi and Panolan, Fahad and et al, .
(2021)
Gerrymandering on Graphs: Computational Complexity and Parameterized Algorithms.
In: 14th International Symposium on Algorithmic Game Theory, SAGT 2021, 21 September 2021 through 24 September 2021, Virtual, Online.
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Abstract
This paper studies gerrymandering on graphs from a computational viewpoint (introduced by CohenZemach et al. [AAMAS 2018] and continued by Ito et al. [AAMAS 2019]). Our contributions are twofold: conceptual and computational. We propose a generalization of the model studied by Ito et al., where the input consists of a graph on n vertices representing the set of voters, a set of m candidates C, a weight function wv: C→ Z+ for each voter v∈ V(G) representing the preference of the voter over the candidates, a distinguished candidate p∈ C, and a positive integer k. The objective is to decide if it is possible to partition the vertex set into k districts (i.e., pairwise disjoint connected sets) such that the candidate p wins more districts than any other candidate. There are several natural parameters associated with the problem: the number of districts (k), the number of voters (n), and the number of candidates (m). The problem is known to be NPcomplete even if k= 2, m= 2, and G is either a complete bipartite graph (in fact K2,n, i.e., partitions of size 2 and n) or a complete graph. Moreover, recently we and Bentert et al. [WG 2021], independently, showed that the problem is NPhard for paths. This means that the search for FPT algorithms needs to focus either on the parameter n, or subclasses of forest (as the problem is NPcomplete on K2,n, a family of graphs that can be transformed into a forest by deleting one vertex). Circumventing these intractability results we successfully obtain the following algorithmic results. A 2 n(n+ m) O(1) time algorithm on general graphs.FPT algorithm with respect to k (an algorithm with running time 2 O(k)nO(1) ) on paths in both deterministic and randomized settings, even for arbitrary weight functions. Whether the problem is FPT parameterized by k on trees remains an interesting open problem. Our algorithmic results use sophisticated technical tools such as representative set family and Fast Fourier Transform based polynomial multiplication, and their (possibly first) application to problems arising in social choice theory and/or algorithmic game theory is likely of independent interest to the community. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
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IITH Creators: 
IITH Creators  ORCiD 

Panolan, Fahad  https://orcid.org/0000000162138687 

Item Type: 
Conference or Workshop Item
(Paper)

Additional Information: 
Sushmita Gupta supported by SERBStarting Research Grant (SRG/2019/001870). Fahad Panolan supported by Seed grant, IIT Hyderabad (SG/IITH/F224/202021/SG79). Sanjukta Roy supported by the WWTF research grant (VRG18012). Saket Saurabh supported by European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant no. 819416), and Swarnajayanti Fellowship grant DST/SJF/MSA01/201718. 
Uncontrolled Keywords: 
Gerrymandering; Parameterized complexity; Representative set 
Subjects: 
Computer science 
Divisions: 
Department of Computer Science & Engineering 
Depositing User: 
. LibTrainee 2021

Date Deposited: 
24 Aug 2022 11:21 
Last Modified: 
24 Aug 2022 11:21 
URI: 
http://raiith.iith.ac.in/id/eprint/10286 
Publisher URL: 
http://doi.org/10.1007/9783030859473_10 
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