Club convergence analysis of ecological and carbon footprint: evidence from a cross-country analysis

Haider, Salman and Akram, Vaseem (2019) Club convergence analysis of ecological and carbon footprint: evidence from a cross-country analysis. Carbon Management, 10 (5). pp. 451-463. ISSN 1758-3004

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This study examines the convergence hypothesis of per capita ecological footprint (PCEF) and per capita carbon footprint (PCCF) for a sample of 77 countries covering the period 1961–2014. In particular, we study whether countries are moving toward a common steady-state equilibrium condition or converging into different groups. To do so, this study used the Phillips and Sul technique. The results do not support the convergence of full sample or similar environmental quality; instead, we find two different steady-state (or club convergence) equilibriums for PCEF and PCCF. Further, our results show that countries which have the lowest PCEF and PCCF are converging (growing) faster than those countries which have the highest PCEF and PCCF. Finally, the speed of convergence of PCEF for club 1 is noted at around 0.126% while for club 2, it is 0.165%. Hence, the climate change policies need to be designed by following the club convergence of the sample countries. AbbreviationsCO2Carbon dioxideEKCEnvironmental Kuznets curveEUEuropean UnionEFEcological footprintG20Group of twentyGHGsGreenhouse gasesIPCCIntergovernmental panel on climate changeOECDOrganization for economic co-operation and developmentPCEFPer capita ecological footprintPCCFPer capita carbon footprintPSPhillips and SulUNDPUnited Nations development programme.

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IITH Creators:
IITH CreatorsORCiD
Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: carbon footprint, climate change policy, club convergence, Ecological footprint, environmental quality
Subjects: Arts > Liberal arts
Divisions: Department of Liberal Arts
Depositing User: Team Library
Date Deposited: 17 Sep 2019 09:26
Last Modified: 17 Sep 2019 09:26
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